tv Cultural Heritage and Confederate Monuments CSPAN June 25, 2016 8:00pm-9:07pm EDT
>> there is a book signing in the front. >> you're watching american history tv all weekend, every weekend. to join the conversation like us on facebook at c-span history. >> university of georgia professor scott nesbitt teaches a story on historic preservation and the debate over cultural sites.ge he describes the origins of some monuments, usually erected due to the efforts of southern women during the reconstruction era and end of the 19th century. his class is an hour.
professo intronesbit: this is to restore preservation. a littleing to think bit about the cultural heritage of the american south, especially after and during the american civil war. it has been in the news quite a bit lately. i think it's a topic that folks who are interested in historical preservation like yourselves have got to figure out. opportunity to make sense of all of this.
to do that i figure we should go and think a little bit about not just where the monuments came from but the war out of which they came. at the beginning of the american civil war, united states soldiers took a great deal of ,are to leave private property all kinds of property alone. toy really strictly held attacking military targets only and seem to be of great importance to political leaders. they thought the war would be short and they needed a quick integration of the american south. it wasn't clear emancipation when end. they didn't want to kick off the people they were fighting. they were scrupulous. tellme degree, you can
looking at the ruins here, that changed over the course of the war. a greater number of targets became possible for united states soldiers. is theu see here virginia military institute in 1864. can debts -- cadets went to the battle and opposed soldiers. hunter did not appreciate having to shoot at boys. barely out of the ready. took the city of lexington and virginia he make sure to burn the institute down as perhaps a warning to the
confederates that that kind of -- using children in a war was not good. now aso, he just got was legitimate target. if it's trading -- training cadets to fight soldiers it is now a part of the war. the shaman became the faces of structure an structure for the s army. you know william t sherman. this guy. this is philip sheridan. washe same time sherman marching through georgia, quite famously, sheridan was marching up the valley. this afterdoing
hunter had gone off the valley. he left it rather barren. everything destroy anyway. this was not indiscriminate destruction of property. murder on a mass scale. if civilians doubt were harmed in this process, both black and white civilians were attacked. ,ut there was no policy conscious policy of doing anything like that. there was no idea the net to public monuments of the antebellum south. maybe there was an exception.
inn sherman -- you know that september of 1864 sherman takes thing fornd amazing the united states army. it steals the election for lincoln. he marches his troops after , heing for a little while takes a minute just before christmas, offers the city as a gift to his president, who had been newly elected, newly reelected to the presidency. he starts marching up and to south carolina. columbia theto city burns. fire.ot clear who set the clear is not much was
left of south carolina's capital. that, ithappened with is clear sherman's troops did not like the landscape for the people they encountered. they vented as they march through it. said, what we have is a pattern of a great deal of violence against military and economic targets. pattern of relative restraint against cold tro heritage of the south. what do i mean by restraint? hunter in sheridan, they marched and burn their way through the
valley. burning when they got there. once they moved out of the valley, they got to charlottesville, the first thing troops did is they rushed to the jefferson'sthomas landmark building. they station guards to protect it to make sure no vandalism would come about. when i got to richmond in the first days of april, federal troops found the city of blaze. they found they had been lost for the united states. they headed out of town.
robert e lee hopped on the train. everybody got out of there. as they were leaving they set as many things on fire, as many important military documents and artifacts on fire as they could. here along thed river and created a conflagration. it started moving up. acted asd states firefighters. they did not want the capital burned. the capital thomas jefferson also constructed. you have learned about that. they did not want the confederate capital destroyed. ordersxceptions follow that were given by president lincoln.
in the spring of 1864 lincoln issued general orders 100. this is known as leapers code. a germanmpiled by immigrant to the united states. he taught at the university of south carolina for a wild. he didn't like the south. he hated the idea of the confederacy and left the south. code was considering a lot of different things. much of our international law's post on what he wrote during the american civil war. among these things as prohibitions against destroying any kind of art, classical buildings. the words are classical works of art, libraries, scientific -- that is article
35 of his code. what you have is destruction of military property, destruction of the economy of the south. the same time you have restraint against the south coal tro heritage. i wish i could say this restraint was carried on by in the postwar years. first widespread assaults on cultural heritage in the 1866.you find in african-americans in the south are beginning to celebrate their emancipation.
this is one year, the one-year anniversary of the fall of the confederacy. move in themericans public sphere they find the buildings they had built immediately upon emancipation or prewar years, many went up in flames. this is in petersburg. former confederates also attacked the first church in and i don't think they were destroyed at the same degree. when congress goes to interview people in the south about what
has been happening, they find churchesf hundreds of and schools burned to the ground. this is the first major attack against cultural heritage we see . african-americans for their part to a number of things in response. juste rural south it's not black churches and black schools that are lit on flame. there is a rash of barn burnings in the south. on large plantations you have barnes, huge structures that were the symbols of agricultural the 1865, 1866.
what you see is a number of these things would go up in smoke. furious these economic werels of their economy being destroyed. this is in response to a wave of terror that had been going on from the first day of emancipation into the reconstruction era. toican-americans began repurpose buildings. it is this repurpose thing that i find interesting. back when i worked with folks at the university of richmond, we built a 3-d model of the city of
richmond. that ise is a structure commonly known as lumpkin's jail. he was a slave trader. traders.e large slave in an areatayed here very much like this in the main slave trading district for you would have some combination of brokers, auctioneers, clothiers, you need special clothiers to support the slave trade because they would dress slave people up in nice clothes to sell them. jail was a piece of this.
wasad a common-law wife who a free person of color. she upon the end of the war, lumpkin put a number of enslave people on a train. he took off with them and try to get out of richmond along with the confederates. end.t his was hispened in 1865 and took his slave jail turned into a school. this was one of the first places of the education of african-americans in the city of richmond. that the this saying devil's half-acre became god's half-acre.
now, in this repurpose the of public space, the spaces of the slave trade, african-americans are trying to walk a fine line and schadenfreude, rejoicing at their own ways in which they have received god to bless them, celebrating their emancipation, wit without taking off the whites around them. the colored people of the city of richmond would most respectfully inform the public they do not intend to celebrate the failure of the southern confederacy despite the fact they are going to be holding a
parade on the day richmond fell into union hands. -- itay we're celebrating is not really emancipation, it's not anything more than that. about confederates losing. it's the african-americans gaining their freedom. white southerners did not buy that. the parade still went on. african-americans began a tradition of proceeding around the city in celebration. picture from the inncipation day celebration 1905. really a part of this tradition
that began in the first year after the war. werean-americans attempting to make public displays to show they were now free, they had access to public spaces, they were transforming for aaces of slavery cultural heritage of freedom. , they were time working toward that, white southerners were trying to figure out what kind of monuments to their dead they would begin producing. how do you memorialize the dead , up to many young men
one out of five men of fighting age were casualties? this massive bloodletting produced a great deal of grief. the consolidation of this grief fell to the latest memorial associations. they took the lead after the civil war, these groups of who bandede women together and tried to think about ways to honor those who had died. the confederates who had died. they did this in a particular context. a context in which much of the south, many places in the south were outside -- occupied by union troops. they were very concerned the
south would try to secede again. if left to their own devices that's probably what would have happened. presence inlitary many of those southern towns. that, ine context like really full of grief, what kind of monuments to you get in a situation like this? you get things like the pyramid at hollywood cemetery in richmond, virginia. 13,000ument to confederate men who died and were buried in the cemetery. work.e it is an abstract if the money was raised, the
initiative and the people who were at the front were women. the women of the self-created this monument. they planned and organized decoration day. you have all seen this article before. this was published in the southern banner in 1871. decoration day celebrated at different times in different places. it was a confederate memorial day. women and the the ,ignitaries, all the faculty -- they alllty aroundd and proceeded the city.
tony hill cemetery laying flowers on the grave. celebration was different. it marks the cornerstone laying monument. this now sits across from the , the northof georgia campus of the university of georgia. the most traveled intersection in town. certainly the busiest pedestrian intersection in town. this is where the monument stands today. raisedey for which was
>> confederate soldiers. prof. nesbit: these are very much monuments to the dead. specific dead. the athens case, the names are inscribed on the base. you don't have the 13,000 names but it is still in a cemetery. divergent monument is from many monuments erected at this time. it's in a public space and always was. any ideas why? what is going on? this?e women leading
>> there were a lot of charges of treason during that time the occupation so if men were to take on this role of it it would with would be charged treason. women weren't as often accuse for those things in the cemeteries were considered safe spaces for remembrance of the dead versus a public space meant a more public statement. i think that's really good. that's exactly what's going on here as far as what i can tell. everything from the leadership of women to the placement of the monument to even the fact that they don't honor robert e. lee or stonewall jackson,
confederate generals. whythese things you can see in an environment which where southern leaders are being suspected of treason, maybe even , it would beeason difficult to say jefferson davis in the middle of the town square. of course, this all changes. different times in different places. have the democratic takeover of the state governments involved through violence.
this ends reconstruction and the monitoring of the south. there are still some troops left even after this ends. the traditional date is 1877. maybe that's a good day, maybe not. by the end of the 1880's you , ae a dramatic upsurge tremendous surge in veterans organizations and the membership in these organizations, and the statues they create. nited confederate veterans foundations -- there were 850 camps all over the south. inre were 1200 of these
1903. the sons of the confederate 1890's.s in the mid- biggest and most prestigious monument, the most famous was in jail. this was the robert e. lee statue. you can tell there's enough space to hold the hundred thousand or so people who flock through. they have this tarp over it. they would withdraw the tarp and everyone would cheer and shout for the following
general. this this was part of a real estate scheme. the developers were interested in employing the new technology of the streetcar and things like that and pushing suburbanization out to the suburbs and this was kind of at the far end of developed land. and so this is a way to create a street that would become a really remarkable promenade into the city and it would have real expensive lots. so this is partly why the robert lee statue is created and unvayed there. you had this turn into nostalgia. the war has been over for a while. it's driven by politics. it's driven by people trying to make some money off of other
people's memories. it's also driven by a sincere desire to stick it to the north. and to create a space that white southerners thought would reflect their dominance of the southern landscape, right? it was an attempt to create a distinct regional and pro-confederate identity in the post world war. and so we need to think about these monuments especially the ones that were created after reconstruction in the 1890's but what else is happening in the 1890's? this is when you have segregation coming into fruition. these are gentlemen in guinette county standing in front of a
segregated train station. right. so it's a multi-pronged attempt to create a south in which the landscape could be read as one that white men controlled from these spaces to -- i'm not going to show actual pictures of lynching, right? but these are more of what we might consider monuments to the white control of the south, right? when you have men hanged on the side of the road. billy holiday's song immortalizes this, right? these people are being lifted up at the same time that the monuments are being lifted up, right? the hay day of lynching, you know, 1880's, 1890's, this is when you get d large scale
public lynching and those continue in the 1920's and even the 1930's. some even later than that. there's a website without sanctuary that has amassed and digitized hundreds of postcards that were created that would memorialize these lynchings, right? so that one couldn't show one's family and friends and neighbors what a good time one had at the local execution. this image though is from actually from the first period , of post errorism civil war terrorism. this is from -- this is like a -- a -- a drawing that was published in the tuscaloosa newspaper in 1868 trying to
carpet bagger io warning them away from the south. if the south has been -- if this is the landscape that we've inherited, right, and these confederate monuments especially those set deep into the 18th century, it should be read as part of this jim crow landscape. ok. so what really should be our response today? you guys are preservationists. a preservation ethic needs to be a really reflective one and thoughtful one. so this is the question that we need to think about.
what do we need to do with these monuments? well, maybe they should be destroyed. this is what happens often in regime change. this is what happened to the --dos square monument to sad saddam husain in 2003. this is from what we can tell this was staged by the united states military to look like it s going to be a popular kind of spontaneous destruction of the cultural heritage of the sain regime and the baathist regime. this is as far as i can tell all orchestrated be the united states military as a photo on and a symbolic end to the battle
t baghdad. a little more recently this -- santa see here is the lodge mons stair -- monastery. this is a sixth century monastery that was in continuous use until the mid 18th century, 1743 or so until the monks there were pushed out. iraq damaged in the 2003 war. but you know, remained looking like this. this monastery was destroyed probably in 2014. i don't know exactly the date.
this and a great other number of cultural artifacts and not just christian, right? christian, islamic, all kinds of cultural heritages are being destroyed and really rapidly by areas in control of the islamic state. more familiar example of the destruction -- the symbolic destruction of building is the prudaigo, the public housing complex that we talked about already. this is a modernist structure, this tower in the park was deemed a failure pretty quickly after it waser recked. and so it was televised and eally highly publicized,
demolition of the building. it was taped on live television. there were pictures sent out that were published all across the country showing the failure urban renewal and the kind of solutions for segregate -- the housing problem warrera mmute post they had created. -- war era they had created. you guys regular nice this, right? >> uh-huh. >> so there are proposals to demolish -- that would take a t of time but to erase these gentlemen -- i don't know, from the face of the mountain.
these proposals -- well, let me let you guys decide what you think about the proposals to basically wipe the face of stone nine, take these confederate generals off, generals and jefferson davis off of the . untain but there are other options, right? for confederate mon youments. maybe they're removing -- removing them -- the monument from the face of stone mountain might be difficult. erasure might be more possible. in august of this year, the president of the university of texas received a report from a faculty committee that he commissioned to look into what should be done with the -- not
just this statue but a number of mon youments to confederate generals and so-called heroes on the university of texas austin campus. says - the writing here must fall. yeah. so really what you have in august is you have the president basically saying, yeah, we're going to get rid of this. and so very quickly they took -- they wrapped the davis statue up stuff.ophane and they basically put the monument down. it wasn't the kind of thing that massive numbers of people viewed. t it's going to be placed on
museum on campus. so this and the other statues are being removed from public display -- removed from their places of prominence and placed, i don't know, motte balled, right? or placed in a context that shows them as artifacts of of history rtifacts but not public symbols that would be interpreted of deserving reverence. one other option would be to -- n to recon tex recontexturalized adding explanatory plaques or maybe building more mon youments, right? figuring out ways to celebrate other figures -- more monuments,
right? figuring out ways to celebrate other figures. this is -- although there's not been any kind of policy that neighbor has talked about in richmond, virge. virginia. in richmond, i mentioned monument general. robert e. lee being the key figure. but they started building up more and more monuments so there are five different confederate generals now. jeff stewart is on monument avenue and we have stone wall jackson as well. but the one at the end of the statue at the end of monument venue is arthur ashe, right? the wimbledon champion. he grew up in richmond,
segregated richmond. in ied of h.i.v. and aids the late 1980's, i believe. ut arthur ashe was a local american hero. and they decided to -- that it would be maybe too difficult or maybe not the right thing to confederate monuments down. there was no political will for that. but there was political will for erecting this arthur ashe monument. there were protests. the sons of confederate veterans did not like to fact that a famous african-american was going to be celebrated alongside confederate veterans. i don't know. would call this monument
inexpertly done. it's not my favorite monument in the world. probably a better one is down here off of monument avenue and near the river, near the james river actually in the area that was burned during the fires at richmond at iron works. now this is an iron works if the confederacy. this is the place where the confederacy made so many of their armments. a statue to abraham lincoln was placed at this public site that's now owned and openered by the national park service. what does this monument say to ou guys?
>> it's not really grand. >> what you do mean? > sitting on top of a pedastle looking out to everybody. >> it's very different from the lee statue and even a difference in the arthur ashe statue which arthur ashe is -- he's holding tennis racket and books with a bunch of kids looking up to him trying to get -- i don't know trying to take his tennis racket away. i'm not sure exactly. t lincoln, right, is sitting -- who is he sitting with? do you guys know? .his is his son tad ok. so it's not -- this is not very much like the lee statue. what else have you guys noticed? >> the encryption behind it, i
uess paralleling lincoln emancipation of slaves and tying up the end of the civil war with ying to like you said, recontextualize because there was a big movement like plaques and other statues and mon youments like that to try to tell the other sigh of the story, giess and that kind of reflects in the encryption of trying to heal from the one-sidedness of the story that's told through monuments. >> ok. good. good. zach, i'm going to pick on you because you're in my reconstruction class. so what imagine of lincoln do we see here? it'spretty humble, i guess
sort of caring, loving. i guess it's pretty much human -- it's conciliatory. 's bringing together >> yeah. absolutely. this is the image of lincoln the healer. lincoln the magnanimous, lincoln who is merciful in victory. this is no conquering hero, right? this is a lincoln who if given a chance what he really wanted to do when he got to the confederate capital was just sit quietly on a park bench with his son, right? in fact, the park bench on which you can sit, right? so i've sat on that park bench. my kids have sat on that park bench before. it's lincoln, the approachable. lincoln, the charitable. >> would a lot of the other monuments, it seemed like they had to try this grandiose like
stature to the -- where it removes them from the environment that they're around and tries to draw attention to it. and while this one -- while it may try to draw some attention .o it, it does include this it doesn't remove itself from it. and so it kind of plays with the whole inclusiveness of fighting with the nation, that everybody should be welcomed to this area. it should be somethng that you have to look up to to enjoy it. >> right. absolutely. this is lincoln at his most approachable self, right? i mean, lincoln when -- i mean, he did visit the city of richmond. and he was let off at rockets landon which most folks would let you off right on the river. you know, the city's charred at this point. he enters the city and he does
not go and sit on the park bench with his son. that's not the first thing that he does. he walks into the city -- the city has no white people essentially in it. all of the confederates have left. they know what's coming. the union troops have secured the city. it's a city of the enslaved and formerly enslaved. and they press around lincoln as he walks into the city. he can barely get through the crowds. huge spontaneous parade greets him. and he makes a b line to jefferson davis's office. and he walks into jefferson davis's office and sits down at jefferson davis's desk, right? and puts his feet up, ok? that's the lincoln who ended the civil war. hero.ered as a conquering . he ended the war as the
commander in chief who was there to take possession of the city of richmond. and this is how he is he moirlized, right? because really that's not a -- an idea of lincoln that would endear richmonders even 150 years later. so this is an attempt -- i would argue in richmond to recontext uralize is to soften the image of the confederacy, creating not threatening images both of the union victory in civil war and of african-american heros holding books and a tennis racket, right? and so we can now talk about what you guys think should be done with our confederate heritage here in athens?
recontexturalize? i don't know. what do you guys think? you've all thought about i because you've had to write me a paper about it. so -- what did you guys argue for in this confederate statue that we have here? >> i think it should stay because it is a piece of history. you know, just forget history. >> ok. ok. so -- so what you're saying is that -- right. from a preservation perspective to destroy this monument is not acceptable in your eyes. this is a record of the past that we need to hold on to even if we disagree with what it stood for. >> might be a terrible time in history but it still happened and still happened here. >> ok.
good. so we can preserve it. do we need to -- why not move it, though? >> it's moved three or four times. >> actually, that's really important that you bring a really important point that you bring up. even though right now it's on that really trafficed pedestrian section. it wasn't always there. >> it was always moved to a heavily trafficked area. >> right. it wasn't as if he was in a marginal space. it's always been in the center visible d relatively space. >> if they move it one more time, they might just break it. >> there are concerns about its stabilities and longevity. it was falling apart not too long ago. and so i think in your careers here of students, it's been kind of disassembled in order to be
repaired. ok. ok. good. >> i would argue for a move of moves, se in its past it's been moved to be disassociated with certain aspects of the city of athens and its current place of where it's more of just like a display . rather than the preeve use position near the city hall when i was like market street and on college avenue sitting at the corner of city hall. it was moved from there. this is just a theory of mine to disassociate it from a government aspect that it wasn't something that was put up, you know, by a collective like gap to give all the people of thens, to attach them to all the association. i would argue to further move it from where it is now because it
stills takes on this like aspects of like a collective, you knows that this is something that we all share. like, but it wasn't put there without exception the first place. it wasn't, you know, that was put squst to represent a very small faction of people. that doesn't make up all of awe thens. it's just the soldiers and it's made up by the elite. >> i would argue to place it in perhaps coney hill or something like that so it would better serve the purpose. that has memorializing that the fold yers rather than, you know, thed a vertly political statement it makes and existing in the center of the public eye -- >> ok. >> so there's a lot there to unpack and a lot that i really agree with. so let's think about -- i heard a couple of different things
that i want to tune out. the first is the idea that in its setting now it's not really -- it doesn't really have the full court impact of -- that in support of the confederacy. what about its current setting makes you say that? >> it's more of just say if you're throughout for either, you know, if you're going to go look out, it's something you think. go and most people don't think much of it. so it is somewhat removed. so the context i'm having it is right in front of the courthouse. >> good. >> my concern is that it's in front of the entrance to the university of georgia. i read in richmond, virginia when they erected that giant,
statue of robert e. lee -- that was kind of like you said here. and they had several monuments that marked off the white porks of town are the places where only white people should be or their haven. me and it may be completely unfolken. but this monument here. i mean, it is it is unbearable for the people being right there and the most highy trafficked pedestrian and obviously an article. so this is the symbolic entrance to the university in the main symbol that the university has is the arch. is this wrought iron arch that faces directly into the intersection in which the monument sits, right? so that's a really important point. who actually knew that that monument was a mon you development the confederacy before this class?
two of you? three of you before the semester? >> there are two things going on here, right? one is that it's in this highly visible place. but it's not doing the kind of cultural work that maybe people thought it would in that space. of whitedoing the work supremacy. nobody knows that, maybe. that could be the case. but at the same time it is in this prominent place that is, e, -- right, is symbolically right at the gate of the university of georgia. >> i any it's interesting to note that although it was moved from city hall it doesn't -- that that move didn't depoliticize the connection of the civil war. they still have a double barrel cannon up there that is just --
it also -- civil war -- like memorial -- not memorial but an artifacts from it. the monument on broad street now is an artifact of it. so and also the moving it to the cemetery, i think, changes an important part of the monument and studying it as an artifact and in its context in history because they purposely didn't put it in a cemetery. move it could arguably be a best way to serve it. that changes the subject the statement that they made that was very different at the time than even other ones going up at the same time. so they also shared that goal of per pitch waiting. but in athens they were not putting it in an early cemetery was important to its identity,
too. >> you're saying that because of that it should that? be moved to >> it should not. >> it can be red as an offensive thing. although a think a lot of the articles don't retain that meaning if the community doesn't share that meaning anymore. like since we don't hold the same values as the people constructed it, the monument isn't a power nfl that regard but rather it's just something to study as like a way to see into like the truth. but the study of it within its context. >> ok. ok. >> so you would be ok with moving it. but keeping it in public? >> yeah. >> what other proposals do we have? > -- i so i thought the athens
monument is very unique. moving it to the cemetery wouldn't do it justice just because the way that early monuments that were made in early monuments. but they made a statement. and i think losing that context would make the monument a part of its history. o i proposed recontextualizing it. and for people that we can recontribution nalizing isn't enough in public places as well that highlight african-american history and struggle in athens nd not just the elite. >> huh. that's interesting. let the -- what would 1,000 mon youments flourish? >> not a thousand. >> a few. what is the connection, right? are there mon youments to people
of color in athens? >> i don't know. they're historical. >> ok. historical markers, ok. good, good. that's correct. how about in the united states of georgia here on north campus -- there much? >> yeah, the 100 homes. >> there's the 100 building. the naming of it and the marker that's next to it come men rate the desegregation by the unit of georgia >> is that about it? >>. >> no, it's not. well, and the history -- i mean, it's not like university of georgia was kind of happily desegregated, right? it's not like students acquiesce to determination of reading her
verse. this was a struggle. and frankly it's a struggle that you still have articles in the red and black that talk about ibish low rates or presence at the university. it has a very popular african-american population. the university does not. >> let's go back to the monument not carrying the same messenger. when you just -- that they're, you know, excuse me i started inking about downtown athens general fairguard the bambings urning away because of their race. to me i associate that monument with people like that and to me it still carries it.
>> ok. some of what what we were talking about that maybe because we're not neocon fed rats, maybe the monument is reinstruct rd. there's more possibility than what we want to hope for. between the antebellum, jim crowera. and tonight's questions. it could be. >> and this thing i have with ralizing. i forgot his name -- >> oscar ash. >> we have our competitive memorial here. we have, say pink more tan of more tan theater. to me that's still divided you still have two sides. symbolicically to me -- >> ok. so that's really good.
even the placement of these memorials can be -- it's in advertently or maybe perfectly right kind of emphasize these divisions. ry >> i didn't mention it but the arthur ashe, it's the last ween one that cuts the road off. and certainly in the loast rent area, you know, after i have the kind of early $20 million mansions. those are all gone by the time ou get to arthur ash monument. and so absolutely that's a fear. and that's something to be concerned about. >> i think these issues are thing that you're going to be continuing to deal with. i'm glad that you guys have thought about it. if this ever becomes a public issue and the university of athletes i hope that you'll participate in this conversation. given it some thoughts. -- onll meet i guess on r
thursday. be sure to talk about the readings for this week. make sure you see monuments letter. we're going to be talking about the precarious nature due to political changes in stability. i'll see you guys on thursday. if you haven't turned in your apers, please make sure. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] >> join us at 8:00 p.m. and midnight eastern as we join students in college classrooms to hear lectures on topics ranging from the american revolution to 911. lectures in history are also available as podcast. or t our website c-span.org download them from i-tunes. > monday on "the
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